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Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions: Assessment and Management

by Se Lee Demos Medical
Pub Date:
12/2016
ISBN:
9781620700983
Format:
Pbk 488 pages
Price:
AU$157.00 NZ$159.13
Product Status: Available in Approx 14 days
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Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions: Assessment and Management is a practical guide to diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions in clinical practice. More comprehensive than a handbook, yet more clinically-focused than a desk reference, this volume is a one-stop guide for clinicians who deal with musculoskeletal disorders and injuries in the practice setting.


 


The book is organized by anatomic region, from neck to toe, and written in outline format. Each chapter concisely presents the basic knowledge that every practitioner needs to have at the ready in the outpatient clinical context. Taking a uniform approach based on isolating symptoms and the location of the pain, the book presents a uniquely practical template for non-operative management of a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal problems. All chapters include epidemiology, anatomy, biomechanics, physical examination, diagnostic studies, and treatment. Flowcharts for differential diagnosis and initial management are provided for chief complaints. Helpful tables, lists, and over 150 anatomic illustrations supplement the text throughout. Given the increasing importance of ultrasound in clinical decision-making at the point of care, a mini-atlas of normal and abnormal findings for common injuries is presented as part of the imaging work-up.


 


Designed to help busy practitioners diagnose and treat musculoskeletal disorders in the clinic or office, this book is an essential resource for physicians in rehabilitation and sports medicine, primary care, orthopedics, and other healthcare professionals who work in outpatient settings.


 


Key Features:


 



  • Provides a consistent approach to managing common musculoskeletal conditions based on location of pain

  • Bulleted format and clear heading structure make it easy to find information

  • More than 30 flowcharts map out differential diagnosis, diagnostic approach, and initial management strategy for each complaint

  • Packed with useful tables, lists, and over 150 illustrations of surface anatomy

  • Integrates musculoskeletal ultrasound into the imaging workup, with over 40 normal and abnormal scans to aid in recognizing signature pathologies at the point of care

  • Purchase includes free access to the fully-searchable downloadable e-book with image bank

Contents


Abbreviations


Preface


Acknowledgments


1. APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH A MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEM


History and Physical Examination


Chief Complaint


Neurological Impairment


Other History


Past Medical History (Limited to MSK Problems)


Review of Systems


Other MSK Symptoms


Physical Examination


Provocative Test


Clinically Oriented Anatomy


Tendon and Ligament


Muscle and Fascia


Bursa


Bone and Joint


Nervous System


Biomechanics


Introduction


Clinical Application


Gait Cycle


Gait Dysfunction


Workup


MSK Imaging


Radiographs


Advanced Imaging


Scanning Protocol Modified From AIUM Protocol


Other Workup: Laboratory Investigation


Treatment


Patient Education


Pharmacologic Management


Local Intervention


Physical and Occupational Therapy


Orthoses


Treatment Based on Different Anatomical Pathologies


References


2. NECK


Epidemiology of Neck Pain


Neck Pain in the General Population


Neck Pain in Athletes


Neck Pain at Work


Differential Diagnosis


Unusual Causes of Neck Pain


Neurological Symptoms Associated With Neck Pain


Anatomy


Regional Anatomy


Spine Complex (Bone and Joint)


Ligament


Nerve: Root and Plexus


Muscle


Fascia


Blood Supply


Biomechanics


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Neurologic Examination and Special Examination


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


MRI


Point-of-Care Ultrasonagraphy


CT Scan


Electromyography (EMG)


Treatment


Nonoperative Management


Surgery


Nerve and Spinal Cord Pathology


Cervical Radiculopathy


Noncompressive Radiculopathy


C5 (Nerve Root) Palsy


Greater Occipital Neuralgia


Supraclavicular Nerve Entrapment Syndrome


Cervical Myelopathy


Cervical Cord Neurapraxia


Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL)


Syringomyelia


Chiari Malformation


Drop Head Syndrome


Bone and Joint Pathology


Cervical Facet Pathology


Whiplash-Associated Injury


Degenerative Disc Disease


Rheumatoid Arthritis


Cervical Spine Disorder in Down Syndrome


Klippel–Feil Anomaly


Fracture


Metastatic Cervical Spine Tumor


Muscle and Ligament Pathology


Cervical Strain/Sprain


Myofascial Pain Syndrome


References


3. SHOULDER


Epidemiology of Shoulder Pain


Shoulder Pain in the General Population


Shoulder Pain in Athletes


Shoulder Pain at Work


Differential Diagnosis


Musculoskeletal (MSK) Causes of Shoulder Pain Based on Location


Neuropathic Causes of Shoulder Pain


Extrinsic Causes of Shoulder Pain


Neurological Symptoms


Snapping Shoulder


Shoulder Instability


Anatomy


Bone, Joint, and Ligament


Nerve


Bursa


Muscle


Biomechanics


Shoulder Movement


Subacromial Impingement


Subcoracoid Impingement: Roller Wringer Effect


Suprascapular Nerve Traction With Scapula Position


Biomechanics of Throwing


Shoulder Stability


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Range of Motion


Strength of Rotator Cuff Muscles


Special Tests


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


Point-of-Care Ultrasonography


MRI/MRA


CT Scan


Treatment


Nonoperative Management


Surgery


Tendon and Bursa Pathology


Impingement Syndrome


Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy and Tear


Calcific Tendinopathy


Biceps Long-Head Tendon Pathologies


Pectoralis Muscle Strain and Tear


Joint and Bone Pathology


AC Joint Sprain and Injury


AC Osteoarthritis


Distal Clavicle Osteolysis


Glenohumeral Joint Pathologies


Shoulder Osteoarthritis


Shoulder Instability


Multidirectional Instability


SLAP (Superior Labral Anteroposterior) Lesion


Bennett Lesion


Rheumatologic Disease


Infectious Pathology


Osteonecrosis of the Humeral Head


Little League Shoulder


Sternoclavicular (SC) Sprain/Injury


SC Osteoarthritis


Fracture


Neuropathy and Vascular Dysfunction


Brachial Amyotrophy (Parsonage Turner Syndrome)


Cervical Radiculopathy


Stinger Syndrome (Burner)


Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS)


Effort Thrombosis (Paget–Schroetter Syndrome)


Axillary Artery Occlusion


Suprascapular Neuropathy


Quadrilateral Space Syndrome


References


4. ELBOW


Epidemiology of Elbow Pain


Elbow Pain in the General Population


Elbow Pain in Athletes


Elbow Pain at Work


Differential Diagnosis


Elbow Instability


Snapping Elbow


Stiffness


Anatomy


Bone and Joint


Ligament


Nerve


Muscle


Biomechanics


Kinetic and Kinematics


Elbow Stability


Elbow Function in ADL


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Range of Motion


Special Tests


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


Point-of-Care Ultrasonography


MRI/MRA


CT Scan


Treatment


Nonoperative Management


Surgery


Tendon, Ligament, and Bursa Pathology


Lateral Epicondylitis


Lateral Collateral Ligament Sprain


Medial Epicondylitis


Little League Elbow


Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) Injury


Valgus Extension Overload Syndrome (Posteromedial Impingement)


Distal Biceps Tendinopathy/Tear


Bicipitoradial Bursitis


Triceps Tendinopathy and Tear


Olecranon Bursitis


Bone and Joint Pathology


Osteoarthritis


Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Elbow (Capitellum)


Posterior Impingement of the Elbow


Rheumatoid Arthritis


Myositis Ossificans


Fracture


Elbow Dislocation


Neuropathy


Ulnar Neuropathy


Radial Tunnel Syndrome


Posterior Antebrachial Cutaneous Neuropathy


Median Neuropathy at Elbow


Other Nerves


References


5. WRIST AND HAND


Epidemiology of Wrist and Hand Pain


Wrist and Hand Pain in the General Population


Wrist and Hand Pain in Athletes


Wrist and Hand Pain at Work


Differential Diagnosis


MSK Causes of Wrist and Hand Pain Based on Location


Neuropathic Causes of Wrist and Hand Pain


Differential Diagnosis of Finger/Wrist Drop


Snapping


Anatomy


Bone, Joint, and Ligament


Nerve


Muscle


No Man’s Land


Biomechanics


Forearm Movement and RU Joint


ROM of Wrist and Hand


Proximal Carpal Movements


Wrist Stability


Biomechanics of Hand


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Special Tests of Wrist and Hand


Special Examination of Hand (Finger)


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


Point-of-Care Ultrasonography


MRI/MRA


CT Scan


Electromyography (EMG)


Treatment


Nonoperative Management


Surgery


Tendon and Ligament Pathology


Wrist Extensor Tendon Disorders


Wrist Flexor Tendon Disorders


Trigger Fingers


Retinacular Cyst


Dupuytren’s Disease


Gamekeeper’s (Skier’s) Thumb and Stener’s Lesion


Finger Sprain and Strain


Volar Plate Injury


Central Slip Extensor Injury


Nerve Entrapment Syndrome


Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)


Anterior Interosseous Neuropathy


Ulnar Neuropathy at Wrist


Superficial Radial Neuropathy


Bone and Joint Pathology


First Carpometacarpal (CMC) Osteoarthritis (Trapeziometacarpal)


Osteoarthritis of the Wrist


Pisotriquetral (PT) Arthritis/Instability


Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Wrist and Hand


Ligament Sprain and Instability


Ganglion Cyst


Carpal Boss


Tumor


Fracture


Other Pathology


Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome


References


6. BACK


Epidemiology of Back Pain


Back Pain in the General Population


Back Pain in Children


Back Pain in Athletes


Back Pain at Work


Differential Diagnosis


Working Definition of Low Back


Differential Diagnosis Based on Mode of Onset


Classification and Differential Diagnosis of Spine Deformity


Differential Diagnosis of Severe Back Spasm


Differential Diagnoses of Bowel and Bladder Dysfunction Related to Spine Pathologies


Differential Diagnosis of Chest Wall Pain


Differential Diagnosis of Buttock Pain


Anatomy


Bone and Joint


Nerve


Artery


Muscle


Biomechanics


Lumbar Spine Biomechanics


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Neurological and Other Examination


Red Flags


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


CT Scan


MRI


Serologic Tests


Electromyography (EMG)


Treatment


Nonoperative Management


Surgery


Back Pain


Nerve and Spinal Cord Pathology


Bone and Joint Pathology


Muscle and Ligament Pathology


Chest Wall Pain


Bone and Joint Pathology


Nerve Pathologies


Muscle Strain


Buttock Pain


Bone and Joint Pathology


Tendon and Bursa Pathology


Ischiogluteal Bursitis


Neuropathy


Miscellaneous Pathology


References


7. HIP AND THIGH


Epidemiology of Hip Pain


Hip Pain in the General Population


Hip Pain in Children


Hip Pain in Athletes


Hip Pain at Work


Differential Diagnosis


Differential Diagnosis of Hip Pain Based on Location


Snapping Hip (Coxa Saltans)


Differential Diagnosis of Groin Mass


Differential Diagnosis of Hip Instability


Anatomy


Bone and Joint


Ligament


Nerve


Muscle


Biomechanics


Kinematic and Kinetic


Hip Stability


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Range of Motion


Special Examination


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


Point-of-Care Ultrasonography


MRI/MRA


Treatment


Nonoperative Management


Surgery


Joint and Bone Pathology


OA of Hip


Labral Tear


Femoroacetabular Impingement


Avascular Necrosis of Hip


Stress Fracture


Osteitis Pubis


Avulsion Fracture and Apophyseal Injuries


Hip Pointer


Hip Dislocation


Tumor or Tumorlike Lesion


Bursitis and Tendinopathy


Lateral Hip


Groin


Neuropathy


Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve


Anterior Femoral Cutaneous Neuralgia


Obturator Neuropathy


Border Nerve Syndrome (Ilioinguinal, Iliohypogastric, and Genitofemoral Nerves)


Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Neuropathy


Other Pathology


Myositis Ossificans


Transient Osteoporosis


Pediatric Hip Pathology


Individual Conditions


Transient Synovitis or Irritable Hip


References


8. KNEE


Epidemiology of Knee Pain


Knee Pain in the General Population


Knee Pain in Athletes


Knee Pain at Work


Differential Diagnosis


MSK (Musculoskeletal) Causes of Knee Pain Based on Location


Neuropathic Causes of Knee and Leg Pain


Differential Diagnosis of Knee Swelling


Differential Diagnosis of Subjective Knee Instability


Differential Diagnosis of Painful Knee Snapping


Anatomy


Bone and Joint


Ligament and Meniscus


Nerve


Biomechanics


Kinematic and Kinetic


Knee Stability


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Range of Motion


Special Examination


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


Point-of-Care Ultrasonography


MRI


MR and CT Arthrography


Management


Nonoperative Management


Surgery


Intra-Articular Structures


Bone and Joint Pathology


Inflammatory Arthropathy


Osteochondritis Dissecans


Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee


Proximal Tibiofibular Sprain and Instability


Meniscus Pathology


Ligament Injury


Plica Syndrome


Extra-Articular Structures (Bursa, Tendon, Ligament Pathology)


Medial Knee Pathology


Lateral Knee Pathology


Anterior Knee Pathology


Posterior Knee Pathology


Neuropathy


Saphenous Neuropathy; Gonalgia Paresthetica


Peroneal Neuropathy


References


9. LEG


Epidemiology of Leg Pain


Leg Pain in the General Population


Leg Pain in Athletes


Differential Diagnosis


Differential Diagnoses Based on Location of Pain


Differential Diagnosis of Calf Pain and Cramps


Differential Diagnosis of Leg Swelling


Differential Diagnosis of Atrophy and Pseudohypertrophy


Differential Diagnosis of Common Tibial Deformity


Other History to Ask


Anatomy


Cross-Sectional Anatomy


Bones


Muscles


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Neurological Examination


Evaluation of Foot for Pes Planus (Overpronation) and Pes Cavus (With Supination)


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


MRI


Point-of-Care Ultrasonography (US)


CT Scan


Vascular Study and Other Tests


Treatment


Nonoperative Management


Musculoskeletal Pathology


Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome


Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS)


Stress Fracture (of Tibia)


Medial Gastrocnemius Tear


Plantaris Tendon and Soleus Muscle Tear


Neuropathy


Superficial Peroneal Neuropathy


Tibial Neuropathy—Soleal Sling Syndrome


Saphenous Neuritis


Lateral Sural Cutaneous Neuropathy


Vascular Pathology


Arterial Disease


Venous Disease


Other Pathology


Restless Legs Syndrome


Statin Myopathy


References


10. ANKLE ANKLE AND FOOT


Epidemiology of Ankle and Foot Pain


Foot and Ankle Pain in the General Population


Foot and Ankle Pain in Athletes


Foot and Ankle Pain at Work


Differential Diagnosis


Musculoskeletal (MSK) Causes of Foot and Ankle Pain Based on Location


Differential Diagnosis of MSK Hindfoot and Ankle Pain


Differential Diagnosis of MSK Midfoot Pain


Differential Diagnosis of MSK Forefoot Pain


Neuropathic Causes of Foot and Ankle Pain Based on Location


Other Causes of Severe (Disabling) Foot Pain


Common Causes of Pes Cavus (High Arch Foot)


Differential Diagnosis of Pes Planus (Flat Foot, Normal up to 6 Years)


Differential Diagnosis of Ankle Equinus


Differential Diagnosis of Ankle Instability


Differential Diagnosis of Snapping Ankle


Lateralization of Pain


Differential Diagnosis of Neuropathic Ankle and Foot Pain


Anatomy


Bone and Joint


Ligament


Retinaculum


Nerve


Muscle


Biomechanics


Kinetic and Kinematic


Ankle and Foot in Gait


Foot Alignment and Deformity


Physical Examination


Inspection


Palpation


Range of Motion


Special Tests


Diagnostic Studies


Plain Radiographs


Point-of-Care Ultrasonography


MRI


CT Scan


Treatment


Nonoperative Management


Surgery


Ankle and Hindfoot


Ligament, Tendon, and Bursa Pathology


Bone and Joint


Forefoot, Midfoot, and Toes


Common Medial Forefoot and Toe Pathologies


Toe Deformity and Fracture


Common Skin Lesion


Common Midfoot Pathologies


Neuropathy


Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (Tibial Nerve Entrapment Neuropathy at Ankle)


Baxter’s Neuropathy (Inferior Calcaneal Neuropathy, 1st Branch of Lateral Plantar Neuropathy)


Jogger’s Foot (Medial Plantar Neuropathy)


Morton’s Interdigital Neuralgia


Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (Deep Peroneal Nerve Entrapment Neuropathy)


Superficial Peroneal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome


Saphenous Mononeuropathy


Sural Mononeuropathy


Medial Hallucal Neuropathy


References


11. OTHER PAIN SYNDROMES


Epidemiology


Epidemiology of Widespread Pain


Epidemiology of Cancer Pain


Epidemiology of Common Neuropathic Pain Conditions


Differential Diagnosis


Generalized Musculoskeletal Pain


Differential Diagnosis of Diffuse Neuropathic Pain


Physical Examination


Examination for Neuropathic Pain


Diagnostic Studies


Serologic Tests


Electrodiagnosis


Other Diagnostic Tests


Imaging Tests


Generalized Musculoskeletal Pain


Fibromyalgia


Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR)


Chronic Fatigue Syndrome


Pain Related to Cancer


Bony Pain Related to Tumor


Muscle and Soft Tissue Pain


Joint Disorders/Synovitis (Neoplastic or Paraneoplastic)


Neuropathic Pain Related to Tumor


Paraneoplastic Peripheral Neuropathy


Radiation Plexopathy


Leptomeningeal Metastasis


Polyradiculopathy


Chronic Radiation Myelopathy


Neuropathic Pain


Central Poststroke Pain Syndrome (Thalamic Pain)


Spinal Cord Injury–Related Pain Syndrome


Complex Regional Pain Syndrome


Small Fiber Neuropathy


Erythromelalgia


References


Index