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Vision Science: Photons to Phenomenology

by Stephen E Palmer The MIT Press
Pub Date:
04/1999
ISBN:
9780262161831
Format:
Hbk 832 pages
Price:
AU$234.00 NZ$242.61
Product Status: In Stock Now
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The computational study of vision & how it develops & works - a large & comprehensive handbook & perhaps an upper-level under or postgraduate textbook. Now used as a main textbook at two Australian Universities. 'This is a monumental work, covering a wide range of topics, both classical findings and recent approaches on the frontiers of research.' -- Anne Treisman, Princeton University This book revolutionizes how vision can be taught to undergraduate and graduate students in cognitive science, psychology, and optometry. It is the first comprehensive textbook on vision to reflect the integrated computational approach of modern research scientists. This new interdisciplinary approach, called 'vision science,' integrates psychological, computational, and neuroscientific perspectives. The book covers all major topics related to vision, from early neural processing of image structure in the retina to high-level visual attention, memory, imagery, and awareness. The presentation throughout is theoretically sophisticated yet requires minimal knowledge of mathematics. There is also an extensive glossary, as well as appendices on psychophysical methods, connectionist modeling, and color technology. The book will serve not only as a comprehensive textbook on vision, but also as a valuable reference for researchers in cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, computer science, optometry, and philosophy

CONTENTS: PREFACE / Organization of the Book / Foundations / Spatial Vision / Visual Dynamics / Tailoring the Book to Different Needs / Acknowledgments / PART I FOUNDATIONS 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO VISION SCIENCE 1.1 Visual Perception 1.1.1 Defining Visual Perception 1.1.2 The Evolutionary Utility of Vision 1.1.3 Perception as a Constructive Act 1.1.4 Perception as Modeling the Environment 1.1.5 Perception as Apprehension of Meaning 1.2 Optical Information 1.2.1 The Behavior of Light 1.2.2 The Formation of Images 1.2.3 Vision as an 'Inverse' Problem 1.3 Visual Systems 1.3.1 The Human Eye 1.3.2 The Retina 1.3.3 Visual Cortex 2 THEORETICAL APPROACHES 2.1 Classical Theories of Vision 2.1.1 Structuralism 2.1.2 Gestaltism 2.1.3 Ecological Optics 2.1.4 Constructivism 2.2 A Brief History of Information Processing 2.2.1 Computer Vision 2.2.2 Information Processing Psychology 2.2.3 Biological Information Processing 2.3 Information Processing Theory 2.3.1 The Computer Metaphor 2.3.2 Three Levels of Information Processing 2.3.3 Three Assumptions of Information Processing 2.3.4 Representation 2.3.5 Processes 2.4 Four Stages of Visual Perception 2.4.1 The Retinal Image 2.4.2 The Image-Based Stage 2.4.3 The Surface-Based Stage 2.4.4 The Object-Based Stage 2.4.5 The Category-Based Stage 3 COLOR VISION: A MICROCOSM OF VISION SCIENCE 3.1 The Computational Description of Color Perception 3.1.1 The Physical Description of Light 3.1.2 The Psychological Description of Color 3.1.3 The Psychophysical Correspondence 3.2 Image-Based Color Processing 3.2.1 Basic Phenomena 3.2.2 Theories of Color Vision 3.2.3 Physiological Mechanisms 3.2.4 Development of Color Vision 3.3 Surface-Based Color Processing 3.3.1 Lightness Constancy 3.3.2 Chromatic Color Constancy 3.4 The Category-Based Stage 3.4.1 Color Naming 3.4.2 Focal Colors and Prototypes 3.4.3 A Fuzzy-Logical Model of Color Naming PART II SPATIAL VISION 4 PROCESSING IMAGE STRUCTURE 4.1 Physiological Mechanisms 4.1.1 Retinal and Geniculate Cells 4.1.2 Striate Cortex 4.1.3 Striate Architecture 4.1.4 Development of Receptive Fields 4.2 Psychophysical Channels 4.2.1 Spatial Frequency Theory 4.2.2 Physiology of Spatial Frequency Channels 4.3 Computational Approaches 4.3.1 Marr's Primal Sketches 4.3.2 Edge Detection 4.3.3 Alternative Computational Theories 4.3.4 A Theoretical Synthesis 4.3.4 Visual Pathways 4.4.1 Physiologlcal Evidence 4.4.2 Perceptual Evidence 5 PERCEIVING SURFACES ORIENTED IN DEPTH 5.1 The Problem of Depth Perception 5.1.1 Heuristic Assumptions 5.1.2 Marr's 2.5-D Sketch 5.2 Ocular Information 5.2.1 Accormmodation 5.2.2 Convergence 5.3 Stereoscopic Information 5.3.1 Binocular Disparity 5.3.2 The Correspondence Problem 5.3.3 Computational Theories 5.3.4 Physiological Mechanisms 5.3.5 Vertical Disparity 5.3.6 Da Vinci Stereopsis 5.4 Dynamic Information 5.4.1 Motion Parallax 5.4.2 Optic Flow Caused by a Moving Observer 5.4.3 Optic Flow Caused by Moving Objects 5.4.4 Accretion/Deletion of Texture 5.5 Pictorial Information 5.5.1 Perspective Projection 5.5.2 Convergence of Parallel Lines 5.5.3 Position Relative to the Horizon of a Surface 5.5.4 Relative Size 5.5.5 Familiar Size 5.5.6 Texture Gradients 5.5.7 Edge Interpretation 5.5.8 Shading Information 5.5.9 Aerial Perspective 5.5.10 Integrating Information Sources 5.6 Development of Depth Perception 5.6.1 Ocular Information 5.6.2 Stereoscopic Information 5.6.3 Dynamic Information 5.6.4 Pictorial Information 6 ORGANIZING OBJECTS AND SCENES 6.1 Perceptual Grouping 6.1.1 The Classical Principles of Grouping 6.1.2 New Principles of Grouping 6.1.3 Measuring Grouping Effects Quantitatively 6.1.4 Is Grouping an Early or Late Process? 6.1.5 Past Experience 6.2 Region Analysis 6.2.1 Uniform Connectedness 6.2.2 Region Segmentation 6.2.3 Texture Segregation 6.3 Figure/Ground Organization 6.3.1 Principles of Figure/Ground Organization 6.3.2 Ecological Considerations 6.3.3 Effects of Meaningfulness 6.3.4 The Problem of Holes 6.4 Visual Interpolation 6.4.1 Visual Completion 6.4.2 Illusory Contours 6.4.3 Perceived Transparency 6.4.4 Figural Scission 6.4.5 The Principle of Nonaccidentalness 6.5 Multistability 6.5.1 Connectionist Network Models 6.5.2 Neural Fatigue 6.5.3 Eye Fixations 6.5.4 The Role of Instructions 6.6 Development of Perceptual Organization 6.6.1 The Habituation Paradigm 6.6.2 The Development of Grouping 7 PERCEIVING OBJECT PROPERTIES AND PARTS 7.1 Size 7.1.1 Size Constancy 7.1.2 Size Illusions 7.2 Shape 7.2.1 Shape Constancy 7.2.2 Shape Illusions 7.3 Orientation 7.3.1 Orientation Constancy 7.3.2 Orientation Illusions 7.4 Position 7.4.1 Perception of Direction 7.4.2 Position Constancy 7.4.3 Position Illusions 7.5 Perceptual Adaptation 7.6 Parts 7.6.1 Evidence for Perception of Parts 7.6.2 Part Segmentation 7.6.3 Global and Local Processing 8 REPRESENTING SHAPE AND STRUCTURE 8.1 Shape Equivalence 8.1.1 Defining Objective Shape 8.1.2 Invariant Features 8.1.3 Transformational Alignment 8.1.4 Object-Centered Reference Frames 8.2 Theories of Shape Representation 8.2.1 Templates 8.2.2 Fourier Spectra 8.2.3 Features and Dimensions 8.2.4 Structural Descriptions 8.3 Figural Goodness and Pr├Ągnanz 8.3.1 Theories of Figural Goodness 8.3.2 Structural Information Theory 9 PERCEIVING FUNCTION AND CATEGORY 9.1 The Perception of Function 9.1.1 Direct Perception of Affordances 9.1.2 Indirect Perception of Function by Categorization 9.2 Phenomena of Perceptual Categorization 9.2.1 Categorical Hierarchies 9.2.2 Perspective Viewing Conditions 9.2.3 Part Structure 9.2.4 Contextual Effects 9.2.5 Visual Agnosia 9.3 Theories of Object Categorization 9.3.1 Recognition by Components Theory 9.3.2 Accounting for Empirical Phenomena 9.3.3 Viewpoint-Specific Theories 9.4 Identifying Letters and Words 9.4.1 Identifying Letters 9.4.2 Identifying Words and Letters Within Words 9.4.3 The Interactive Activation Model PART III VISUAL DYNAMICS 10 PERCEIVING MOTION AND EVENTS 10.1 Image Motion 10.1.1 The Computational Problem of Motion 10.1.2 Continuous Motion 10.1.3 Apparent Motion 10.1.4 Physiological Mechanisms 10.1.5 Computational Theories 10.2 Object Motion 10.2.1 Perceiving Object Velocity 10.2.2 Depth and Motion 10.2.3 Long-Range Apparent Motion 10.2.4 Dynamic Perceptual Organization 10.3 Self-Motion and Optic Flow 10.3.1 Induced Motion of the Self 10.3.2 Perceiving Self-Motion 10.4 Understanding Events 10.4.1 Biological Motion 10.4.2 Perceiving Causation 10.4.3 Intuitive Physics 11 VISUAL SELECTION: EYE MOVEMENTS AND ATTENTION 11.1 Eye Movements 11.1.1 Types Of Eye Movements 11.1.2 The Physiology Of The Oculomotor System 11.1.3 Saccaadic Exploration Visual Environment 11.2 Visual Attention 11.2.1 Early Versus Late Selection 11.2.2 Costs and Benefits of Attention 11.2.3 Theories of Spatial Attention 11.2.4 Selective Attention to Properties 11.2.5 Distributed versus Focused 11.2.6 Feature Integration Theory 11.2.7 The Physiology of Attention 11.2.8 Attention and Eye Movements 12 VISUAL MEMORY AND IMAGERY 12.1 Visual Memory 12.1.1 Three Memory Systems 12.1.2 Iconic Memory 12.1.3 Visual Short-Term 12.1.4 Visual Long-Term Memory 12.1.5 Memory Dynamics 12.2 Visual Imagery 12.2.1 The Analog/Propositional Debate 12.2.2 Mental Transformations 12.2.3 Image Inspection 12.2.4 Kosslyn's Model of Imagery 12.2.5 The Relation of Imagery to Perception 13 VISUAL AWARENESS 13.1 Philosophical Foundations 13.1.1 The Mind-Body Problem 13.1.2 The Problem of Other Minds 13.2 Neuropsychology of Visual Awareness 13.2.1 Split-Brain Patients 13.2.2 Blindsight 13.2.3 Unconscious Processing in Neglect and Balint's Syndrome 13.2.4 Unconscious Face Recognition in Prosopagnosia 13.3 Visual Awareness in Normal Observers 13.3.1 Perceptual Defense 13.3.2 Subliminal Perception 13.3.3 Inattentional Blindsight 13.4 Theories of Consciousness 13.4.1 Architecture Theories 13.4.2 Biological Theories 13.4.3 Consciousness and the Limits of Science APPENDIX A PSYCHOPHYSICAL METHODS A.1 Measuring Thresholds A.1.1 Method of Adjustment A.1.2 Method of Limits A.1.3 Method of Constant Stimuli A.1.4 The Theoretical Status of Thresholds A.2 Signal Detection Theory A.2.1 Response Bias A.2.2 The Signal Detection Paradigm A.2.3 The Theory of Signal Detectability A.3 Difference Thresholds A.3.1 Just Noticeable Differences A.3.2 Weber's Law A.4 Psychophysical Scaling A.4.1 Fechner's Law A.4.2 Stevens's Law Suggestions for Futher Reading APPENDIX B CONNECTIONIST MODELING B.1 Network Behavior B.1.1 Unit Behavior B.1.2 System Architecture B.1.3 Systemic Behavior B.2 Connectionist Learning b 3 Back Propagation B.2.2 Gradient Descent APPENDIX C COLOR TECHNOLOGY c. 1 Additive versus Subtractive Color Mixture C.1.1 Adding versus Multiplying Spectra C.1.2 Maxwell's Color Triangle C.1.3 C.I.E. Color Space C.1.4 Color Mixture Space? C.2 Color Television C.3 Paints and Dyes C.3.1 Subtractive of Paints C.3.2 Additive Combination of Paints C.4 Color Photography C.5 Color Printing Suggestions for Further Reading GLOSSARY REFERENCES NAME INDEX SUBJECT INDEX
Stephen E. Palmer is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Institute ofCognitive Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.